The purpose of the GTFS API is to make public transport routes and schedules available. At the moment, the API supports routes, trips, stops, calendars and agencies (see below for further details). Fares and transfers are not provided (yet?).
Most of the public transport data available follow the model of Google’s Transit Feed Specification (GTFS). A good place to start is Google Transit Reference - this will tell you a lot about the domain, for example, routes, trips, or calendars.
The API uses the GTFS convention - snake case - as its naming convention. You may not like the underscores, but this is the easiest if you want to re-use their documentation. Please don’t ask for camel/pascal/random case.
Versions & Identifiers
The transport network is regularly changing: routes are changed, stops are created, removed or relocated, times change, etc. The data “underneath” therefore is versioned. GTFS allows for changes - which is what calendars are designed to do. However, Auckland Transport’s internal planning systems are a little more restrictive, which forces us to add version indicators to many identifiers.
For example, the service 334 has a route “Otahuhu To Britomart Via Mangere Town Centre” with the ID “33401-20160803113210_v43.25”, but also a route with the ID “33401-20160729161628_v43.23”. These are the same route, but different versions for different date ranges, and potentially different stop sequences. See below for further details around routes and trips.
And, like most identifier, don’t try to read anything into them. Sure, an ID like “71302-20160803113210_v43.25” looks like bus 713, and version 43.25 created on the August 3rd - but that might change, so please treat it as a “string thingy”.
The following sections are about GTFS - in a nutshell -, with a few Auckland specific details worth noting:
An Agency is an operator of a public transit network, often a public authority.
For Auckland Transport, these are the different bus, train, and ferry operators, like Sea Link (ferry), Sky Bus (bus to airport), Ritchies (bus), or AT Metro (trains).
GTFS Routes are equivalent to “Lines” in public transportation systems.
A route, in Auckland terms, is, for example, bus 334 (
route_short_name), “Otahuhu To Britomart Via Mangere Town Centre” (
route_long_name). The record itself is mostly for display purposes - the trip (see below) ties it to the schedule.
But: Usually GTFS defines one route (for example 334), and several trips reference it to identify inbound and outbound directions, different schedules for weekdays and weekends, etc. At Auckland Transport, because of internal processing, this works a bit differently. Multiple route records usually exist for one “service” (334), one for each direction, and sometimes also for partial routes and different stop sequences. So, compared to how GTFS should be, there are routes that should be one route, and routes that have the same service number, but should perhaps have different numbers.
For example, the service 334, as mentioned above, is eight routes, all with the same
- Otahuhu To Britomart Via Mangere Town Centre (33401)
- Britomart To Otahuhu Via Mangere Town Centre (33402)
- Otahuhu To Britomart Via Massey Rd (33403)
- Britomart To Otahuhu Via Massey Rd (33404)
- Otahuhu To Onehunga Via Mangere Town Centre (33405)
- Onehunga To Otahuhu Via Mangere Town Centre (33406)
- Otahuhu To Onehunga Via Massey Rd (33407)
- Onehunga To Otahuhu Via Massey Rd (33408)
1&2, in this example, illustrate different directions, 1&3 different stop sequences, and 1&5 illustrate partial routes.
On this topic, it is also worth pointing again to the Versions & Identifiers section above, which describes multiple versions of the same route at the same time.
A Trip represents a journey taken by a vehicle through Stops.
By example, a trip is bus 334, “Otahuhu To Britomart Via Mangere Town Centre”, leaving “Platform 1a Otahuhu” at 14:00:00, and arriving at “71 Customs St East” at 15:25:00, Monday to Friday.
From a model perspective, the trip ties together the route (Bus 334, “Otahuhu To Britomart Via Mangere Town Centre”), a series of stop times (14:00:00 - Stop 8098; [63 other stops]; 15:25:00 - Stop 7021) - these can then be resolved to the stops (8098=”Platform 1a Otahuhu”; 7021=”71 Customs St East”) - and a calendar (Monday-Friday).
The identifiers for trips - just like routes - are versioned. See section Versions & Identifiers above for details.
A StopTime defines when a vehicle arrives at a location, how long it stays there, and when it departs.
This one should be obvious: It defines the scheduled arrival and departure time at each stop for a trip.
A stop is a location where vehicles stop to pick up or drop off passengers.
This one should also be fairly obvious: A bus stop, train station or ferry pier.
Most bus stops have “parent” stops, which usually indicates a bus stop on each side of the road. For example, stop 11522 (“Mountain Rd and Morrow”) is the parent for 8600 and 8601. It is worth noting here that the child stops can have different geographical locations, and also names. For example, 8600 is called “Gillies Ave near Morrow St”, and 8601 is “5 Gillies Ave”. Some bus stops are also the “single child” of a parent stop. Though, don’t rely on all bus stops having a parent.
Train stations, at the moment, are single stops without parents. The reason for that is that platforms in stations are currently allocated dynamically; linking platform stops to trips would mean the GTFS constantly needs to be regenerated. So, from a GTFS point of view, all trains passing through a station pass by a single stop.
Note that the value for
stop_id happens to be the same as for
stop_code. Don’t bank on it, and don’t try to use the ID to look up stops by code.
Services define a range of dates between which a Trip is available, the days of the week when it is available (such as Monday through Friday)
GTFS separates calendars out to allow re-use between trips. At Auckland Transport, due to how the schedules are generated, a trip and a calendar form a 1:1 relation - one calendar for each trip. This relationship may change in future, though, so please don’t base your code on this assumption.
The identifiers for calendars - just like routes - are versioned. See section Versions & Identifiers above for details.
Calendar Dates/Calendar Exceptions
You can use this to define exceptional days when the Trip is operated, as well as when it is not operated.
Nothing particular to note. It is defined, though, and must be used to determine if a particular service runs for a given date.
Shapes describe the physical path that a vehicle takes
A call to shapes, for a given trip, returns a sequence of points (geographical locations).
shape_dist_traveled is not set.
Frequencies are not used at the moment. Auckland’s Link buses, to which this could apply, run on a schedule like all other buses, trains and ferries.
Transfers are not used at the moment.
Not in use, at the moment. Until recently, the fares structure for Auckland was too difficult to be accurately reflected in the GTFS fares structures. With the recent introduction of zone-based fares, this may now be possible. Please contact us if this would be useful for your project.
Please also see the Farecalculator API to get fares for trips.
The file contains information about the feed itself, rather than the services that the feed describes.
This API is probably less of interest if you consume the API directly, but is useful if you want to download the GTFS feed directly: It contains the version number, as well as start and end dates for that version.
Note that a new version can be published before the stated end date. However, the data up to that end date will (should) stay the same.
Please refer to AT Google Transit Feed to download the GTFS feed directly.